In Edgartown in 1860 qualities required of teachers included: 1) Sound judgment or good common sense that enable people to vary rules according to circumstances and to adapt means to ends. This implied an understanding of the nature of childhood. 2) Literary requisites of all subjects. Ideally, a good teacher would have a basic understanding of different academic areas and their overlap. This was probably one of the biggest deficiencies. 3) Aptness to teach, meaning the ability to interest students in their studies by encouraging investigations and solving their difficulties on their own. 4) Affability or politeness..the byproduct of refined feelings that results in a pleasing expression and obliging manner. 5) Teachers study and treat the art and science of education in a practical and philosophical manner through the works of Ogden (Science of Education and Art of Teaching) and Holbrook (Normal Methods of Teaching the Common Branches), among others.